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Khankendi ::: General information ::: Center of science and culture :::
  • The streets of Khankendi
  • The view of Khankendi from Shusha
  • A nature view of native Garabagh
  • The monument to World War II
  • Baku-Khankendi-Shusha road

Center of science and culture

Unceasing attention for Daghlig Garabagh in 1970 years made it one of the highly developed regions with modern industry, leading agriculture, modern infrastructure. National leader Heydar Aliyev devoted much attention to the development of social and economic condition of UGAR. During his rule over Azerbaijan in 1969-1982, this care and support created ground to the happy and prosperous future of the people. When Upper Garabagh events arose, the region was living comprehensively developed period of 1970 years. It is no coincidence that when at the beginning of 1988 UGAR events began, the opinion of Armenians with chauvinist principles who thought that the reason of the conflict is in “failing the development of the social and economic condition of UGAR done by Azerbaijan deliberately” was rejected at the examination where experts on economy of Armenian nationality were participating. Academician of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the chairman of the Scientific Council on problems of main funds, capital investments and economic efficiency of the new technology Tigran Xachaturov came to Azerbaijan in March 1988. Real situation of the socio-economic and cultural fields of UGAR was widely analyzed, in details, and inspections were carried out in Khankendi and Baku. As a result, the well-known economists of Armenian nationality had to acknowledge that the situation in economic-social and cultural spheres of Upper Garabagh was completely different from the opinion submitted to the world by the Armenian politicians, on the contrary it was in more favorable condition. In this case, academician Tigran Xachaturov was obliged to submit the following table compiled according the results of analysis, to Kremlin:

  Azerbaijan SSRUGARUSSRArmenia SSR
1Maintenance with hospital
beds for 10 thousand people (unit)
2Maintenance with doctors of all specialities for 10 thousand people 38,429,142,738,6
3Maintenance with medical staff for 10 thousand people 93,5122,7114,793,5
4Number of mass libraries for 10 thousand people (unit)6134,84,1
5Number of clubs for 10 thousand people (unit)5154,83,8
6Number of cinema facilities for 10 thousand people (unit)311,25,42,9
7Maintenance of pre-school institutuions
(percentage for number of individuals with relevant age)
8Number of pupil in the first shift (percentage
according to the common number of the pupil)
9Apartment area per man (sq.m.)10,914,614,913,7

Hikmet Jamilzadeh. Upper Garabag: Pages from the life of personality. B. 2004


The construction of numerous buildings of various architectural styles, erection of cultural monuments has changed the appearance of Khankendi as one of the dynamically developing cities in short period of time. Beside the economy, education, science and culture developed at a rapid pace; the press, literature and art made progress; the network of higher and secondary education, child welfare institutions, schools strengthened material-technical base of education.
Because of far-sighted policy of national leader Heydar Aliyev, great opportunities for progress of science, education and cultural fields were formed in Khankendi. It is no coincidence that 1970-1985 years were important period in the development of culture in Khankendi, and made Khankendi to be one of the cities having dynamically developed culture. One of the biggest achievements was the opening of the Institute of Teachers in Khankendi. Opened in 1938, this institution provided seven-year schools of DGAR with trained teachers. There were two sections of the institute in 1940. In 1950, 3 more departments were created at the Institute of Teachers in Khankendi.
The system of vocational education was rapidly developing in the town of Khankendi in1970-1985. Thus, pupils were taught different trades at the eight secondary schools of the town.
The establishment of a wide range of cultural and educational institutions and their development favored a lot to eliminate illiteracy in the region by having great importance for the population of the UGAR. Special attention was paid to the opening of the libraries and reading-halls. 1920-1940 years more than 66 independent libraries were operating in the region.
In the 30s of XX century, as cultural and educational institutions clubs operated in Khankendi. In 1940, there were approximately 150 clubs in UGAR. Of course, the role of the media is irreplaceable in enlightenment of the population, increasing social and political activity. By the end of 1960, 118 newspapers were published in the republic and 6 being published in the UGAR. One of them was in Azerbaijani, another in Russian and the other 4 were published in Armenian language.
In 1959, establishment with rich, interesting and colorful repertoire of the State Song and Dance Ensemble in Khankendi played an important role in upgrading the cultural level of population.
During 1970-1985 years, a number of academic institutions were operating in Khankendi that made new effective proposals and inventions in order to obtain higher productivity in the national economy of the region. As well as, they carried out important work to thoroughly study of the natural resources of the Upper Garabagh Autonomous Region, to find solutions to increase productivity in agricultural crops and cattle rearing. Khankendi Agro-Industrial Association, Khankendi Zone Experimental Station, UGAR branch of the Azerbaijan Agricultural Engineering Association, Garabagh Scientific Experimental base and Upper Garabagh branch of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences were such institutions.
Teachers’ Training Institute, the Pedagogical Institute, Technical Secondary School of Agriculture, Khankendi branch of the Writers´ Union of Azerbaijan, 2 music schools, technical and vocational schools, local history museum, Khankendi Drama theater named after M. Gorki, libraries, playing fields, recreation parks, rest homes, song-dance circles and ensembles operated in Khankendi.