Deprecated: mysql_connect(): The mysql extension is deprecated and will be removed in the future: use mysqli or PDO instead in /data/xankendi/public_html/class/DB.class.php on line 20

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /data/xankendi/public_html/class/DB.class.php:20) in /data/xankendi/public_html/class/session.class.php on line 12

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /data/xankendi/public_html/class/DB.class.php:20) in /data/xankendi/public_html/class/session.class.php on line 12
Khankendi ::: Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Region ::: The establishment of the Nagorny Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijan SSR. The decree "On establishment of the Nagorny Karabakh Autonomous Oblast" of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Soviet Committee of July 7th 1923 :::
azen
  • The streets of Khankendi
  • The view of Khankendi from Shusha
  • A nature view of native Garabagh
  • The monument to World War II
  • Baku-Khankendi-Shusha road

The establishment of the Nagorny Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of the Azerbaijan SSR. The decree "On establishment of the Nagorny Karabakh Autonomous Oblast" of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Soviet Committee of July 7th 1923

The czar autocracy, which strived for enslavement of the national minorities in the former Russian Empire, did not hesitate to annihilate individual nationalities by means of setting them against each other.

The Armenian-Moslem massacre of 1905-6 in the South Caucasus, could serve as the best evidence of the ruinous policy of the Russian autocracy. At the moment when revolutionist labor people of the South Caucasus began to openly express their discontent at capitalist oppression, czar general Vorontsov-Dashkovs created hostility among two historically related nations of Armenians and Moslems.

This became even more evident when the South Caucasus was divided into three "independent states", headed by a group of national chauvinists - Musavatists, Dashnaks and Mensheviks, who were the flunkeys of the Western capital and brought domination over the national minorities to the forefront. Within a short period of the existence of these "states" they spilled a great deal of blood of working peasants in the Karabakh mountains and other parts of the South Caucasus.

The annihilation of national oppression and inequality in whatever form these are displayed is in the replacement of the national hostility and hatred by the international solidarity of fraternal nations within a single state union, is one of the main tasks of the working and peasant revolution and the Soviet power.

In order to fulfill this task, the Central Executive Soviet Committee of Azerbaijan decdes:

1. To establish an autonomous oblast from the Armenian part of the Nagorny Karabakh, as a constituent part of the ASSR with the center in Hankendi.

2. The government of the autonomous oblast is the Oblast Executive Committee and the local Soviets.

3. Prior to the establishment of the oblast executive committee, to establish a temporary revolutionary committee which will have to summon a congress of Soviets for the election of a permanent executive body no later than 2 months after.

Note: All pastures, forests, gardens and actual ownership of land and water will rest with the current owners.

4. The Oblast Executive Committee is provided with the appropriate financial and technical means from the budget of the ASSR by direct decrees of the AzCEC.

5. In order to develop the oblast regulations and actual transition to administrative units into the autonomous oblast of Karabakh, as well as to determine the autonomous oblast´s borders, to establish a mixed commission of representatives of Nagorny Karabakh, lowland Karabakh, Kurdistan and central authorities of ASSR. The commission will have to complete its work by 15 August of this year.

Chairman of AzCEC M.B. Kasumov
Secretary of AzCEC M.Hanbudagov
Collection of statues and decrees of the Labor and Peasant Government of the USSR in the year of 1923. Baku, 1925, pp.384-385.

SSRİ Fəhlə-Kəndli Hökumətinin 1923-cü il üzrə qanunlar və sərəncamlar külliyyatı. Bakı şəhəri, 1925-ci il, səh. 384-385.

CREATION OF NAGORNO KARABAKH REGION

Division of Karabakh by Soviet government and The Status of the Autonomous Republic attached to Daghlig Garabagh in 1920-1923

With the strengthening of Soviet government the process of restoration of the tsarist Russian border began. The 11th Red Army concentrated its forces on northern borders of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and received several orders and decrees for the occupation of Azerbaijan. The powers which supported the Soviet state within the Azerbaijan Parliament and the March revolt of Armenian Dashnak separatists in Karabakh accelerated the overthrow of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic existed for 23 months and was overthrown by the 11th Red Army and the Soviet government was established in the Northern Azerbaijan. Thus, the situation around Karabakh entered a new stage.

Daghlig Garabagh: geography and the concept of Daghlig Garabagh. For lightning this problem let´s first stay on the geography of Daghlig Garabagh and the concept "Daghlig Garabagh.

The territory of Karabakh is divided into plains and mountainous areas for its landscape. This is a scientifically approved fact. Thus, A.M.Skibitski, the son of the famous Caucasus scientist M.A.Skibitski in his artcle entitled "The Caucasus revolt" said: "The mountainous region of Karabakh Khanate was once called Daghlig Garabagh. It comprised of an area between the Karabakh mountains on the east and the Zangezur mountains on the west, as well as the Karabakh plateau, separating Daghlig Garabagh from plain Lower Karabakh". As seen, due to the fact that the lands of the Karabakh khanate as part of Tsarist Russia were subject to to different administrative divisions, the concept of Karabakh had lost its original administrative-political meaning. However, in periods of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (1918-1920) the concept of Karabakh acquired its initial definition. As seen from the foregoing viewpoint of S.Shaduns, the term of Daghlig Garabagh was established by Dashnaks at that very time.

Since that time the concept of "Daghlig Garabagh" acquired not only geographical but also political importance. With the establishment of the Bolshevik power in North Azerbaijan this concept became important from the administrative and political point of view and turned to the principal concept in the political lexicon of Azeri-Armenian relations and Russia, which backed the latter. At that time the surrounding of Daghlig Garabagh changed geographically. Again we refer to the writings of A.M.Skibitski that are as follows: "…The Karabakh plateau was attached the status of autonomy in 1923 and was called the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh or briefly "Daghlig Garabagh" within the new bounds of Azerbaijan. The Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh: history of establishment, major events and their consequences. To determine main principles of the establishment of the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh, in other words to present this process more clearly, let´s pay aatention to the development of major events.

From the protocol of the plenary session of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party
July 5, 1921

"RK (b) P MK Qafqaz Bürosu plenumunun iclas protokolundan 5 iyul 1921-ci il

Present:Member of Central Committee of Communist Party Stalin, member of Caucasus Bureau: comrade Ordjanikidze, Kirov, Orakhelishvili, Figatner, Narimanov, Myasnikov, Commissar of Foreign Affairs of Azerbajan SSR Huseynov.
Listened:Resolution:
Comrades Ordjonikidze and Nazaretyan raised issue on reconsideration of resolution of the former Plenum on Karabakh1) Considering the necessary to creating national concord between Muslims and Armenians and quite developed economic relations between Upper and Lower Karabakh and Azerbaijan to retain Daghlig Garabagh the part of Azerbaijan and to attach in the status of Autonomous Province with administrative center in Shusha. 4 voted for, 3 neutral. 2) To instruct the central committee of Azerbaijan to determine the borders of the autonomous provice and to introduce it to the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party for approval. 3) To instruct Presidium of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party to negotiate a candidate to the Emergency Committee of Daghlig Garabagh with the central committees of Azerbaijan and Armenia. 4) To instruct the central committee of Azerbaijan to define the degree of autonomy of Daglig Garabagh and to introduce in to the Caucasus Bureau of the Communist Party for approval.
 Secretary of Caucasus Bureau of Central Cominittee of the Communist Party: Figatner

The source: MLIPAAF under the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party (present ARDSRIHA), ch.64, list 2, file 1, p. 118; 122-122; К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахский автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, p. 90-91; 92

Following the establishment of the Soviet government in Azerbaijan and with th creation of the Council of National Commissars the emergency commissars were appointed in the regions. In this connection A.N.Karakozov (1890-1938) was apponted the emergency commissar for Daghlig Garabagh. The Soviet Government of Azerbaijan sent a note to Armenia on April 30, 1920 and demanded the withdrawal of Armenian troops from Zangezur and Karabakh.The soviet government was established in Karabakh in May.

At that time Soviet Russia continued its plans of spreading Soviet regime in the Caucasus, and introducing the principles of the countries´ borders division, attempted to take the control over the activity of future countries. The Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee under the Russian Communist Party touvhed upon this issue in its instructions to the military-revolutionary council of the Caucasus front of July 7.

With the establishment of the Soviet government tin Armenia (1920, November 29) the situation with inner division as well as of the state border deteriorated. The declaration of December 1 and telegram of November 30, sent by the Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan to the Soviet Republic of Armenia spoke on Daghlig Garabagh and its mountain part. These documents were not presented by Armenian historians. The declaration awarded the working villagers of Daghlig Garabagh to determine their own fate.

Armenian Revolutionary Committee gave up its claims for Nakhichevan on December 28. However Armenia did not want "to lose" Karabakh. The problem of Daghlig Garabagh again emerged in the determination of borders between Azerbaijan and Armenia. The Caucasus Bureau instructed to point out the belonging of Daghlig Garabagh to Armenia in the Declaration of Armenian government. The Council of National Commissars edicted that on June 12. Such development of events could not satisfy Azerbaijan.

A session of the political and Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan communist (bolshevics) chaired by the Q.Kaminsky, secretary of Central committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party and held in Tbilisi on June 27 focused on the discussion of the border between Azerbaijan and Armenian in connection with the work of the commission. For the first time Daghlig Garabagh was granted the right to determine its own fate: "3. The only possible way of the problem resolution may be the attraction of Armenian and Muslim people to the work of Soviet regime construction (as mentioned in the declaration of comrade Narimanoc)". Narimanov was instructed to communicate the opinion of the Political Bureau and Organizational Bureau on the problem resolution to Teheran. On the same day Narimanov conducted direct conversation with chair of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee M.H.Hadjiyev and Foreign Minister M.D.Guseynov. "Narimanov: Tell them that it is the opinion of the Political and Organizational Bureau. If they support my declaration, the declaration states as follows: "Daghlig Garabagh is given the right to determine its fate independently.

Huseynov: "All right. I´ll tell them everything. Anyway, I would like to say that our resolution will be greeted coldly". On the same day Guseynov informed the Caucasus Bureau about that. It was decided to convene the emergency plenum and to invite Narimanov and Myasnikyan to Tbilisi.

The way the integral part of Azerbaijan way attached the status of an autonomy: The resolutions of the Caucasus Bureau Plenum of July 4 and 5 1921. A session of the Caucasus Bureau Plenum was held in Tbilisi in such conditions. Considering a special importance, we place the exact resolutions of the protocol of the Bureau session late July 4 and July 5:

Armenians are trying to prove that Stalin played a principal role in the approval of the resolution on July 5. However, no facts prove the direction of Stalin´s influence on the session of July 4 and 5 of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee under Russia´s Communist Party (the Bolshevics). In other words, in the struggle, preceding the establishment of USSR (December 30, 1922) Stalin´s plan on autonomism, instruduced as the implementation of Lenin´s idea on the federative state construction does not seem real. Therefore the metter must be considered more thoroughly:

1) Before the establishment of the USSR and the unification of Azerbaijan and Armenia within one state the Central Caucasus Bureau in fact interfered with the issue of borders and introduced itself as an authorized body. The problem of Daghlig Garabagh turned into the trilateral issue;

2) The Caucasus Bureau making use of this "right" did not allow the natural historical fulfillment of principle of determining Daghlig Garabagh´s fate by its people and interpreted it as a large provincial autonomy;

3) The Caucasus Bureau wanted to influence Azerbaijan by its resolution of July 4 (Daghlig Garabagh can transfer to Armenia) and the next day Armenia by return to the issue (Daghlig Garabagh may be confirmed the part of Azerbaijan) and to ensure the favorable position for the Center and in fact it achieved its goal (Daghlig Garabagh was attached the status of autonomy). Thus, following the resolution of the plenum of the Caucasus Bureau on July 5, the situation about Daghlig Garabagh followed a new direction: The Caucasus Bureau provided the Center with a favorable resolution and started to exert pressure for its implementation. Thus, Soviet Azerbaijan faced a new condition, resulted from the forced attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh. Armenia tried to deteriorate the relations with the Caucasus Bureau and Azerbaijan in the issue of Daghlig Garabagh and to interfere with Daghlig Garabagh´s affairs taking the advanrage of its status of autonomy.

These issues must be fully viewed.

Change in S.M.Kirov´s position. After the approval of the resolution of July 5, the leadership of Azerbaijan had to initiate its fulfillment. In this connection the results of Narimanov´s visit to Tbilisi were approved at the session of the Presidium of Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee held July 19 of the same year, while the session of the Political and Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist Party (the Bolshevics) held July 20 established a commission to work out the constitution of the Autonomou Province. One of the issues of this process needs to be studied thoroughly.

As is known, the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist (the Bolshevics) party had a crucial role in the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh by the resolution of July 5. Obviously, the same factor is responsible for Kirov´s appointment the leader of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party in July 1921. After Kirov came to power in Azerbaijan the official attitude to the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh changed and this process delayed to two years.

Therefore, Kirov´s position on this issue and the factors that influence it require more thorough consideration. Paying attention to the extract from the minutes of the session of July 4, one can see that Kirov spoke against the retaining of Daghlig Garabagh the part of Azerbaijan and voted for its annexation to Armenia (5,b). Kirov also contributed to the development of the said resolution and participated in the session of July 20 of Political and Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee and July 19 of the Presidium of the Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee. At a session of the Political and Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist (bolshevics) Party chaired by KIrov September 26, the change in Kirov´s position is evident. Among those nine people present at the session (Kirov, Narimanov, Akhundov, Qarayev, Efendieyev, Stukalov, Mirzoyan, Bunyadzade, Guseynov) 7 persons spoke for reconsideration of the resolution of Daghlig Garabagh´s separation and only 2 people (Narimanov and Bunyadzade) stood for its temporary fulfillment

A commission to collect data on this issue was established. Bunyadzade, chairing a conference held with participation of the Organizational Bureau of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist (Bolsheviks) party October 21 also supported Kirov´s position. Thus, at the session the separation of Daghlig Garabagh as an autonomous province was not regarded as an expedient measure.

Thus, Kirov´s ruling Azerbaijan revealed the establishment of new relations in the issue of Daghlig Garabagh´s autonomy. And that is not accidental. Kirov considered its old position and even the resolution of the Caucasus Bureau on forced attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh and on its fulfillment in the shortest possible time instead of declaring Daghlig Garabagh the integral part of Azerbaijan to be false.

Four months after the decree of the autonomous status of Daghlig Garabagh at the session of Presidium of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Comunist Party held on October 8, 1923 chaire by Kirov it was announced that the propaganda of the resolution on the autonomy of Daghlig Garabagh among the population especially among the turks (Azerbaijanis).

And what was the attitude of Azerbnaijan towards the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh? Such developments caused anxiety of the Caucasus Bureau and it started to exert pressure to make Azerbaijan accept the resolution of July 5. That was implemented in two ways. From one hand Azeri leadership was put certain demands from the other hand strengthening Armenians´ participation in Daghlig Garabagh´s government it tried to weaken Azerbaijan´s influence in the region.

The separation of Daghlig Garabagh proceeded on par with the establishment of Transcaucasia Federation and USSR. However, the problems of its fulfillment were not reconsidered by the Azerbaijan Communist Party. On the contrary, Ordjonikidze, appointed the chair of the Transcaucasia Country Committee of the Russian Communist Party at the first session of Transcaucasia communist organizations held February 1922, applied the methods of administrative predominance in the issue as in case of the acceptance of July 5´s resolution.

At the session of the Transcaucasia Country Committee held on October 27, 1922 the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party was suggested to implement the resolution of July 5 and it was decided to appoint Karakozov the chair of the Executive Committee and to send him to an official trip to the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party as Shadus had been sent for a responsible work.

The resolution of the Transcaucasia Country Committee was approved for implementation and a central commission (Kirov, Mirzabekyan, Karakozov) for the issues of Daghlig Garabagh and a Committee (1922, December 15, 1923, July 24) were established under the Council of the People´s Commissars of Azerbaijan SSR at the session of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party. Yet Azerbaijan was still subject to pressure. The United Council of the Trancaucasia Federation carried out a special resolution on the acceleration of Daghlig Garabagh´s separation.

The demands of the Transcaucasia Country Committee became even tougher with the establishment of USSR. A report of the Karabakh Committee was included into the diary of presidium of the Transcaucasia Country Committee in May 1923 . The Presidium of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist Party carried out a decision on decretization of autonomy and introduction of its draft to the Central Committee within three days. This resolution satisfied the Transcaucasia Country Committee. In accordance with the report of Shaduns and Karakoz the Presidium of the Transcaucasia Country Committee entrusted the central committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party to provide for the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh within a period of one month on June 27. The session of the Presidium of the Central Committee under the Azerbaijan Communist Party, chaired by Kirov, familiarizing with the problem of Karabakh carried out a six paragraph resolution on July 1. The Azerbaijan Central Executive Committee was suggested to attach the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh and to establish the Autonomous Province of Karabakh with the center in Khankendi. A commission to define the problems, connected with the borders was created. (chairman-Qarayev, members: Karakozov, Sviridov, Ildyrym and Bunyadzade), etc.

The Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan Councils drew the same resolution on July 4, 1923. The decree "On establishment of the autonomous province of Daghlig Garabagh" of the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan Councils was signed by M.B.Gasymov (1879-1949) and A.M.Khanbudaqov (1893-1937) on July 7 . The decree consists of a preambule, four paragraphs and the conclusion on the establishment of a joint commission. As seen, the resolution of ther Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party and the decree differ by their names it was decided to separate Daghlig Garabagh instead of uniting these lands with the plain and mountain part of Karabakh.

The decree´s title "The Autonomou Daghlig Garabagh Province" instead of "Daghlig Garabagh"attracts much attention. However, later it was called Daghlig Garabagh Autonomou Province (in order not to mix everything up we are obliged to follow this tradition yet we accept the official form of the concept) The decree is notable for its primitive content rather than that of official documents. The historical chronology of the preamble gets broken, the facts are misrepresented, the necessity to attach Daghlig Garabagh the status of autonomy is not substanciated enough.

The first paragraph of the decree makes way for legal-political misrepresentation ("1 to establish the autonomous province of Armenian part(?) of Daghlig Garabagh as a constituent of ASSR with the center in Khankendy village"). Instead of confirming the fact that Daghlig Garabagh is the integral part of Azerbaijan and the Daghlig Garabagh Autonomouy Province is established on Azeri lands, the decree uses differebt perverted statements. The third paragraph stipulates for creation of a Temporary Revolutionary Committee before the Soviet forum is established. Undoubtedly that granted even larger opportunities to the Armenian leadership of the Province. By the decision of the session of the Central Committee Presidium under the Azerbaijan Communist Party held July 16 (10 days after the decree) Shusha was annexed to the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh. A regulation on the governor executive committees was approved and introduced to the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh in 1923, while a regulation on the Autonomous Province of Daghlig Garabagh was published on November 26, 1924.

Thus, the integral part of Azerbaijan Karabakh was divided into plain and mountain parts artificially and the leadership of Azerbaijan was made to grant the status of autonomy to Armenians settling in mountain part of Karabakh later. At that the step was taken without considering the opinion of Azerbaijanis residing in Daghlig Garabagh, their rights were roughly violated and no referendum had ever been held.

Armenia´s formula of Daghlig Garabagh;

Armenia´s position in the issue of Daghlig Garabagh´s retaining the part of Azerbaijan and it acquiring the status of autonomy is also interesting to view. Armenian inially did not agree to such a resolution of the problem and grudging to the resolution of the Caucasus Bureau of the Central Committee under the Armenia Communist Party of July 5 on July 16, 1921 it continued its claims for Daghlig Garabagh.

Later it regarded the attachment of the status of autonomy to Daghlig Garabagh granted to it by the Caucasus Bureau to be the advisable step, and shaped its fight for Daghlig Garabagh as follows: Toward the release to Daghlig Garabagh from Azerbaijan´s ruling once it acquires the status of autonomy-towards Daghlig Garabagh annexation to Armenia! This formula was based on strengthening of Armenian shauvinism in Daghlig Garabagh and its surroundings.

It came to the situation when K.Radek reported on Armenian shauvinism in Azerbaijan (April 23) at the twelfth session of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (April 17-25, 1923). At the same time Stalin stood against that. As for the resolution of the Caucasus Bureau of July 5 the Armenian author non reconciliating with Stalin quated him largely in this document. That was the session at which Stalin´s objective description was given and "A letter to a session" by Lenin was read. It´s also known that the participants of the twefth session were subject to repression. Therefore, the issues connected with K.Radek´s report are to be studied once more.

Armenians, backed by a strong support in the face of Stalin, soon elucidated their intentions. Shaduns sent a message to the Transcaucasia Country Committee stating that the autonomous province (Daghlig Garabagh) must have direct contacts with the committee; "Leaders of the Transcaucasia Federation should fine an alternative and wiser resolution of the problem." Thus, he confirmed all that mentioned above on the principal formula of Armenia´s further activity related to Daghlig Garabagh.

The attitude towards the attachment of the status of autonomy to the integral part of Azerbaijan-the moumntain part of Karabakh-Daghlig Garabagh and the issues emerged about it was summed up at the sixth session of the Azerbaijan Communist Party chaired by Kirov. His doubt and uncertainty about the status of autonomy attached to Daghlig Garabagh is perceived in aech sentence. At the session he said: Finally (!), we have settled this issue and undoubtedly (!) the step was a correct one. There is no doubt (?!) that we´ll have to return to this issue in the future. In fact, as it has been mentioned above Kirov doubted about the correctness of the problem solution and the doubts were sound enough.

AMEA-nın A.Bakıxanov adına Tarix İnstitutu

İstifadə olunmuş ədəbiyyat:
1. Скибицкий А. Карабахский кризис // Союз. №7, 1991. Ayrıca nəşr, tərcğmə. Bakı, 1991
2. Шадунц. С. указ. соч.
3. Скибицкий А. указ. соч.
4. Очерки истории Коммунистической партии Азербайджана. Баку, 1963, с.334
5. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с.41
6. Карабахский вопрос. Степанакерт, 1991, с. 49-51
7. Кочарли Т. Необходимое уточнение // К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с.32-34
8. Гулиев Д. Следовать истине, а не амбициям., там же, с.48
9. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с.89; Карабахский вопрос, с.461
10. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 86-87, 89-90, 88
11. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 90-92
12. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 94-95
13. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 96-97
14. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 99-101
15. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с.191-194
16. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 127
17. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 132-133
18. Мартиросян Г. "Образовать из армянской части Нагорного Карабаха автономную область" // Карабахский вопрос, с.57
19. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 148
20. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с.
21. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 149
22. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 149-150
23. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 152-153; Собрание узаконений и распоряжений Рабоче-крестьянского Правительства АССР за 1923 г. Баку, 1923, с. 384-385
24. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 154-155
25. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 165-166
26. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР,, с. 268-270; Собрание узаконений и распоряжений Рабоче-крестьянского Правительства АССР за 1924 г. Баку, 1926, с. 333-335
27. Карабахский вопрос, с. 48
28. Двенадцатый съезд РКП(б). Стенографический отчет. М., 1968, с. 487
29. Наумов В.П., Курин Л.Л. Завещание Ленина // Историки спорят. Тринадцать бесед. М., 1988, с. 84-121
30. Карабахский вопрос, с. 58
31. Карабахский вопрос, с. 58
32. К истории образования Нагорно-Карабахской автономной области Азербайджанской ССР, с. 241-242 93. Скибицкий А.М. Карабахский кризис // Союз, 1991, №7; H.Nəzərov 7, 9 min km. göstərir. Гейдаров Н.Г. В горах Зангезура. Баку, 1986, с.3