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Khankendi ::: Armenian vandalism ::: 31 March Genocide ::: Genocide committed by Armenians against Azerbaijanis :::
  • The streets of Khankendi
  • The view of Khankendi from Shusha
  • A nature view of native Garabagh
  • The monument to World War II
  • Baku-Khankendi-Shusha road

31 March Genocide

Genocide committed by Armenians against Azerbaijanis

“Genocide of the Azerbaijanis was committed with a special cruelty in Baku, Shamakhy, Guba, Garabagh, Zangazur, Nakhchivan, LaNGARan and in other regions of Azerbaijan. Civic people were massively executed, the villages were burnt, the national cultural monuments were destroyed in these regions”.
Heydar Aliyev

Kaspi qəzetinin Nikolayevski (müasir İstiqlaliyyət) küçəsində binası Mart hadisələrində baş vermiş yanğından sonra

The exact elucidation of historical events is one the important issues of humanity today. There are so many historical tragedies in the life of the Azerbaijani people that even the young generation, as well as world community are not well enough informed. Our intellectuals, scholars have to implement their civic duty – to write about the remote and recent past events and to spread it thoroughly among the future generation. In this sense, the research of the crimes perpetrated against humanity, especially the genocide committed against Azerbaijanis and their delivering to the world public are the important duties.
Every year the 31th of March is state-level commemorated as a Day of Azerbaijanis’ genocide. This date reflects the bloody signs of tragic events happened in Azerbaijan history during the last hundred years in the memory of the nation. The massacre of Azerbaijanis and repressions committed against them should be considered as the bloodiest page of the world history of the XX century. On March 31, 1918 the Baku Commune and the Armenian nationalists committed unexampled violence in the history of mankind through conducting massacre and executions. This genocide got its real juridical-political assessment after the independence of Azerbaijan.
The decree issued as a result of purposeful policy of national leader Heydar Aliyev on March 16,1998, on the anniversary of the March events, is a profound and comprehensive juridical-political assessment of the Armenian aggressors’ terror actions. This decree is some kind of program-document aimed to protect the national memory of present and future generations. Commemoration of March 31 as a Day of Azerbaijanis’ Genocide is assigned in this document that gives thorough analysis of massacre and deportation policy conducted for centuries against Azerbaijanis. The decree states: “After the Republic of Azerbaijan gained its independence a chance was emerged to create an objective view of history of our nation.
The truth kept in a secret and interdicted for a long years and distorted events gained their real assessment The genocide committed against Azerbaijani people which has not received its political-juridical assessment is one of undiscovered pages of history”.
During the years past Azerbaijan government implemented considerable activities towards informing the world community about this historical truth, the genocide and horrible scale of ethnic cleansing that our nation were exposed for two centuries. The decree highlights historical core of the Armenian aggression against Azerbaijan, the genocide committed step by step, as well as its terror policy. This genocide that was carried out through history against the Azerbaijanis was a result of Russian-Armenian collaboration. Russian Empire intended to consolidate in South Caucasus and the Armenians relying on Russia aimed to occupy historical Azerbaijan lands and to establish Armenian state in this territory.
From the second half of the 19th century Armenians committed genocide against Azerbaijanis as organized and planned policy. The Armenians aiming to establish “Great Armenian State” in the territories of Azerbaijan, Turkey and Georgia directed towards this goal the political-terrorist organizations such as “Dashnaktsutun” (1880,Tbilisi), “Union of Armenian Patriots” (1885,New-York), “Gnchag” (1887,Genua). The systematic terror and massacre actions against the Azerbaijanis were considered in the plan of activity of aforementioned organizations. The Russian revolution of 1905-1907 years created “broad opportunities” for these organizations. Taking a chance of disorder, the Armenians committed massacre in Baku,Shusha, Zangazur and Garabagh; and plundered 75 Azerbaijani villagies.
The process of deportation and massacre of the Azerbaijanis continued after the revolution in 1905-1907. The Russian Empire’s statistic data of the time also proves this. According to the information pubished in 1916, the population of the Iravan province increased for 40 times within 1830-1914 years and comprised 570.000 heads. But instead, the number of the Azerbaijani population of the region increased just for 4.6 times. Even as a result of this oppression and deportation approximately 45%, in other words, 247.000 people of Iravan population were Azerbaijanis. The World War I that began in 1914 and as a result of this, the revolutions in Russia (1917) created suitable condition for the Armenians’ claim for “The Great Armenia”. In early 1915 year the Armenian population of the northern – east regions of Turkey began the war against the Ottoman Empire and committed massacre against the Turkish people. In response, the Ottoman Empire gave an order about mass deportation of the Armenian residents from those territories.
Together with the Armenian military troops many Armenian population moved from Turkey to Iravan province, Garabagh and Zangazur. (the precise information based on official documents on this issue will be comprehensively construed in the next monograph –S.M.). Armenians relying on Russian army created carnages against Azerbaijanis first in Nakhchivan and Iravan, then in Garabagh and in other regions of Azerbaijan.
According to Arzinjan treaty signed between the Ottoman Empire and the Transcaucasian Commission of Bolsheviks in December 1917, the Armenian military troops replacing Russian army which was dismissed from Caucasian front, taking an advantage of ungovernability of the situation oppressed the local muslim residents. Consequently, 199 Azerbaijani villages were totally destroyed and burnt in Iravan province untill March 1918. Part of Azerbaijani turks of 135.000 living in this territory were murdered by Armenians, the rest were obliged to flee to the areas that were under the control of the Ottoman army.
These slaughters were leaded by Stepan Shaumyan who was assigned extraordinary commissiar on Caucasian issues on December 16, 1917 by the Soviet of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR. Such a situation gave real chance to S.Shaumyan to realize sovietization policy in South Caucasus. Only pretext was needed to begin the slaughter: at last, wish of muslim soldiers to send weapon to the volunteers in UGAR gave that pretext to Shaumyan. He ordered to prevent from sending weapons to UGAR. Many died and were wounded as a result of these skirmishes. Using this event as a pretext, Shaumyan involved the Russians and Armenians into unparalleled carnage against Azerbaijanis. Early in the morning on March 30, the Armenian –bolshevik unity drum-fired upon the town from the ships. Then armed dashnaks entering houses of Azerbaijanis committed ruthless bloodshed.
On March 31st and April 1st the slaughter was implemented massively. 30.000 people were killed within three days in Baku. Shaumyan’s Armenian-bolshevik troops plundered the property of Baku residents that amount to 400 million manats and destroyed many muslim sanctuaries. Dashnak-bolshevik forces fired the Mosque Tazapir and burnt the building “Ismailliyya”, one of the grandious architectural monuments of Baku. During the carnage that lasted from March 30 to April 2, 8027 (2560 of them were women and 1277 children) Azerbaijanis were killed by Armenians in 53 muslim villages of Shamakhy. 162 villages were completely destroyed and more than 16.000 people killed in Guba province.
Thousands of compatriots were killed in UGAR and Mughan. Armenians totally destroyed 150 Azerbaijani villages in Mountainous Garabagh and committed inconceivable slaughter in Shusha. During March-April 1918, hundreds of Azerbaijanis were executed by Armenians in Baku, Shamakhy, Guba, Mughan and UGAR and ten thousands of people were expelled from their lands. Only in Baku about 30 thousands of Azerbaijanis were ruthlessly killed. 122 villages in Guba, 150 in mountainous part of Garabagh, 115 in Zangazur, 211 in Iravan province and 92 villages in Kars region were razed to the ground; people were executed with negligence.
One of many appeals of Iravan Azerbaijanis states the following (“Əməkçi (Emekchi)” newspaper, №231, November 2, 1919): “We struggled against Armenian aggressor with conscious. If the Azerbaijanis gained the upper hand, then Baku could be declared the capital of Azerbaijan.” Apparently, Armenians committing obvious genocide against Azerbaijanis intended to occupy the whole Azerbaijan, included Baku. Our nation for long years was unaware of this true history and as a result of these false ideological dogmata and false history our memories were adjusted in wrong direction. The cemetry where thousands compatriots, the victims of horrible genocide are buried, was concreted and the monument of Kirov was erected and a recreation park was made there. In this sense, the decree issued 9 years ago by national leader Heydar Aliyev besides being a historical document against 200 years of occupation and genocide policy, is also significant from the point of affection of our nation towards its national values, historical roots and homeland. By reason of histroical condition, it was impossible to assess events and people’s tragedy during two centuries. Therefore, during the last years Armenians did their best to socialize their false pretensions and to turn the adventurous “armenian genocide” to geopolitical factor. But the historical facts show that no matter that Armenians relying on their supporters tried to hide these facts from world community, history preserved these facts up to nowadays. For that we consider necessary to bring some moments of genocide committed against Azerbaijanis to the attention of readers.
Lets look through the several facts that base on some archive documents. During the review of appropriate sources, while reading about slaughters committed by Armenians against the Azerbaijanis, hatred towards these savage people increases a thousandfold. For instance, the terrible tragedy perpetrated by these nasty people in Amovu village of Nakhchivan was a policy of a very brutal genocide. Andranik’s gang of bandits used violence against our fellow-countrymen in different regions of Azerbaijan, as well as in Nakhchivan. Describing just a certain part of disaster brought on the Amovu village G.Mammadova writes: “Dashnaks made a huge fire at the foot of the village. They brought women, men around the fire. Dashnaks, divided into groups, run down the women trying to move towards mountains, dragged them to the fire pulling by their hair, and cut and chopped those who they could not come over... ”
Another moment noted with pain describes: “A bearded soldier did not let Yapo (a nickname given to Armenian cut-throat – H.H.) to finish his word. He stroke the young bride’s chest with an axe and cut down it, a baby rolled out and fell down off the mother’s womb. A bearded man very attentively examined the baby with a bayonet in his hand and roared with laughter: - I was right. Yapo, this baby is a boy, he could be a soldier. The bearded man took the roll of meat with a bayonet without aversion and threw it into the fire... ”
There are thousands events more terrible than above mentioned. If an opinion instigating Armenians to a genocide of the Turkish people were emerged recently? Definitely no! Their policy of genocide formed through the centries, the ideologists of this policy propagated it systematically and in suitable condition they committed genocide. One of the followeres of this ideology and even one of its realizers was aforementioned S.Shaumyan. In general, as there are enough scientifically substantiated information about settlement dynamics that makes its comprehensive analysis useless. But as a response to the false views of Armenian-Dashnak ideology it is enough to stress that very few Armenians lived in these cities untill Turkmanchay treaty and they could be counted hardly.
Naturally, the nonsense of these ideologists who consider the Turkish genocide as an aim was a means for Armenians to implement that policy. I consider we should bring some issues, based on the official documents, to the notice of readers. For instance, it is noted in one source (H.Baykara “History of Azerbaijan struggle for independence”) describing the March massacre of 1918 that was committed by Armenians nationalist who could skillfully take an advantage of any suitable condition: “The shops of the Turks were plundered, homes were burnt. It is hard for me to write about this. The Turkish women were raped, killed and tormented after they were obliged to walk naked being tied to each other by hair …The violence did not ended with this. Armenian, Russian voluntary troops attacked Shamakhy, Salyan, Kurdamir, Guba and LaNGARan, and committed massacre, plunders as in Baku, as well as unparalleled crimes in history.”
The organizers and the executers of this genocide were instructed on March 15, before the events started. In his speech on March 15,1918 S.Shaumyan expressing his anxiety about the country said: “Baku Soviet must be the main support and centre of civil war in Transcaucasia.” The motives in the speech showed that the time for the genocide of Azerbaijanis had already come. Armenians were ready for that. The plan was implemented before Baku in Shamakhy. According to historical sources and archive documents Shamakhy residents were violently massacred on the eve of Novruz holiday. S.Lalayan was ordered to implement genocide plan which was drafted from the first months of 1918.
The complete annihilation of muslim residents of Shamakhy was an unanimous opinion of Armenian dashnaks. The criminal terrorist gang of Lalayan continued the same bloodshed in the villages and 58 villages of Shamakhy were turned into ruins. “Azerbaijan” newspaper from October 21,1918 highlighted the events with pain: “... We are unaware of what happened to Shamakhy counter-revolutinaries; but we know that the socialist group with “Amirov and Lalayev” on the head cut and chopped all muslim residents of Shamakhy and destroyed the villages. The savagery committed towards muslim inhabitants of Shamakhy by Lalayev was the worst violence that we met during this period. ”
It is quoted that the Armenian armed forces sent to Shamakhy, supposedly, came to punish counter-revolutionaries. Nevertheless, they, in fact, inflicted all Muslim people under this name. N. Narimanov later wrote on realization of genocide intentions of Armenians by such a policy: “If a Muslim was Bolshevik, even then he would not be quartered. Dashnaks said: “We do not recognize any Bolsheviks; it is enough to be a Muslim”. They killed the man who they wanted, destroyed and ruined houses… Under the banner of bolshevism, Dashnaks allowed savagery against the Muslims. Not only men, they did not show mercy even to pregnant women.”
The statistical figures reflect brutality committed in Shamakhy bloodshed. Let us pay more attention to the massacres committed against Azerbaijanis in Shamakhy villages.
75 people in Jayirly, 378 people in Arabgadim village, 26 people in Jamjamli, 120 in Garavalli, 25 in Kurdamir, 27 in Ovchulu, 370 in Baghirli, 922 in Takla, 585 in Dilman, 44 in Sulut, 117 in Nuran, 250 in Sundu, 200 in Aghsu, 316 in Bakla, and thousands of innocent people from other villages of Shamakhy were killed brutally. The investigation of historical documents show that S. Lalayan did not satisfied with Shamakhy bloodshed, and continued actions of genocide in surrounding areas, including Goychay and Kurdamir regions. Investigation documents of Kurdamir show that Armenians who fired Kurdamir and plundered the property of population came from Shamakhy. Armenians realized their national policies under the banner of bolshevism under the leadership of “Dashnaksutyun” party. Stepan Lalayan brought Armenians to Kurdamir. He was the initiator and organizer of fires, murders, and the plunder committed against the Muslims.During the investigation Movsum bey Sadigbeyov who lived in Kurdamir testified about the atrocities of the Armenians: “I have been living in Kurdamir for a few years. I am from Shamakhy, I have moved here three weeks before the Shamakhy events. When I lived in Kurdamir, I heard that Armenians brought many weapons from Baku. When Muslims objected to it, Armenians told them that they collect weapons in order to protect themselves…”
The first clash between the Muslims and the Armenians took place in the village of Meysari on March 15, 1918. The next day peace treaty between Armenians and Muslims was signed. People thought that the danger was past. However, Shamakhy was gun-fired from the village of Madrasa on March18. Soon Malakans also acted against the Muslims... The town was destroyed. The main organizers and initiators of all these massacres were Stepan Lalayan, Mikhail Arzumanov and Garaoglanov. “
The republic has doubled its activity in this field in recent years, and basing on the official documents began fair and effective action against the Armenians. National Leader Heydar Aliyev´s decree from March 26, 1998 provided an opportunity to carry out this work in a systematic manner. This order revealed the truth that was concealed for many years and caused by the prohibitions, and renewed the bloody memory of our people. Resolute and decisive action aimed at exposure of Armenian vandalism and at raising Azerbaijan national problems to the international level continued decisively by the worthy successor of Heydar Aliyev, Azerbaijan´s President Ilham Aliyev´s political course. It is stressed in the state leader’s appeal in connection with the genocide of the people: “We only want to restore the historical justice and truth, and to accuse those who lead occupation and genocide policy before the world community. I am confident that our patriotism, national unity and purposeful activity will play an important role in the process of informing the world community about the genocide committed by Armenians against the Azerbaijanis.”
Due to the recommended appeal, Heydar Aliyev Foundation organized in abroad an exhibition of the material up to 100 in connection with the genocide. “Garabagh realities” held by the Foundation, including the books and booklets published in English about the destruction of the cultural-historical monuments in the occupied territories were broadcasted abroad. At the same time, in February 2009, a campaign –”Justice for Khojaly” started with initiative of General Coordinator for Intercultural Dialogue of Youth Foundation of the Organization of Islamic Conference Leyla khanum Aliyeva continued successfully during the previous year and volunteers joined this action in most countries of the world.
As it is seen, Armenians’ genocide against Azerbaijanis was carried out deliberately, in stages, but our people who always observed the principle to live in peace believing that such tragedy would never happen were struck to disasters unseen in the history of mankind. Today each member of the community in the world, especially every citizen of Azerbaijan shall be aware of these tragedies and shall be able to take a lesson from the history. The assessment of the genocide committed by Armenians against Azerbaijanis that is considered as crimes against humanity is based on propaganda of this problem to the world community by grounding on the historical facts.

Sadir Mammadov. March genocide. 2010.